Polynesian Tattoo is a unique style that has great impact on modern tattoo design. For example, tribal design uses Polynesian symbols and style to make it look masculine or exotic. However, for indigenous Polynesians, the significance is beyond body art to get a tattoo on the body. Tattooing has always been a sacred process in Polynesian culture.
The Polynesian Triangle
Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, comprising of over 10,000 islands which is generally defined as the Polynesian Triangle. Geographically, the Polynesian Triangle is drawn by connecting the points of Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island. The other main islands within the Polynesian Triangle include Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti and the Cook Islands.
The Polynesian Triangle is a geographical region of the Pacific Ocean with Hawaii (1), New Zealand (2) and Easter Island (3) at its corners. At the center is Tahiti (5), with Samoa (4) to the west.
Polynesian Tattoo Styles
Despite many languages, the people who inhabit in different Polynesian islands share many similar traits in culture and beliefs. Tattoo is certainly one of them. However, the style of tattooing varies from island to island, which are usually named after the names of islands or people.
- Samoan tattoo – a tattoo style indigenous to Samoa island. The Samoan tattoo for men is called pe’a, which consists of intricate geometrical patterns covering areas from waist to knees. The Samoan tattoo for women is called malu that covers the legs from the upper thighs to the knees.
- Hawaiian tattoo – the ancient tattoo art also known as Kakau, is sacred to the Hawaiian people, mainly used to represent one’s social status.
- Maori tattoo – aka Ta Moko, is a form of facial tattoo art practiced by Maori people in New Zealand. Maori tattoos feature intricate spiral or round patterns and symbols with unique meanings. It is a way to tell stories about their owners, reflecting social rank, power and status.
- Tahitian tattoos – an indigenous tattoo style to Tahiti, the largest island in French Polynesia. The origin of the English word ‘tattoo’ actually came from the Tahitian word ‘tatau’. In ancient Tahitian culture, there were strict codes governing the use of tattooing for it represented one’s e social standing.
- Marquesan tattoo – aka patutiki, a traditional tattoo design originating from Marquesas Islands. Similar to Maori tattoos, Marquesan tattoos are rich in spiral or rounded elements and share a more figurative style.
Placement of Polynesian tattoos
Despite the distance of the islands, traditional Polynesian tattoos display proximal visual art effect, which embody the spiritual power, lineage or deeds for the wearers. Besides the motifs or symbols, the placement plays role in expressing their meanings.
The head connects to Rangi which means sky. In Maori and other Polynesian mythology, Rangi was a god of the sky, husband of the earth goddess Papa. A tattoo on this placement reminds people of spirituality, knowledge and wisdom.
One of typical head tattoos is Maori facial tattoo or ta moko. Each moko contains ancestral tribal messages specific to the wearer. That’s why copying a facial tattoo is considered greatly offensive.
The area is from the navel onto the chest, a place between Rangi and Papa, the earth goddess who gave birth to all things by making love to the sky.
The belly or stomach, is associated to Mana, a supernatural power in Polynesian peoples may exist in person or inanimate objects.
Arms and shoulders
Many people are amazed by the tribal tattoos on this body part. Shoulders and arms are the best places for the masculine designs that represent strength and bravery.
The thigh tattoos are of great sentimental value for women. In Samoan culture, it was an important rite of passage for young Samoan women to get tattoo from the upper thighs to the knees. This placement is particularly related to strength and marriage. For young women, it used to be the sole outfit for daughter of the chief.
In Polynesian tattoos designs, calf, the front of lower leg and the full lower leg are the popular placements for leg tattoos.
Polynesian Tattoo Symbols and their meanings
Polynesian body art is highly associated with their living surroundings. A large number of symbols are used as the motifs in the tattoo designs, . Each of them acquires a meaning related to its inner nature and embodies that meaning to the bearer of the tattoo. Below are some of the examples and their meanings.
This symbol appears in tattoos representing human figures, men and women and god, beings with powers and qualities of the same kind as living men.
The motif embodies a Marquesan hero which represents strength, courage and tenacity.
The classic symbol in Polynesian Tattoos which often appears as a row of spearheads, representing warrior and masculine power.
A centipede is a creatures that can be found across Polynesian islands. Its aggressive nature makes it perfect symbol of fighting and warrior. In Samoan tattoos, centipede means god of long time since.
Lizards and geckos are important and significant to Polynesian myths and culture. The Samoans revered several gods in lizard form. For Maori culture, whilst lizards could be seen as a bad omen representing darkness and death, they are often regarded as protection and guardians. Sometimes, the lizard could resemble enata symbol if portrayed in square shapes.
The turtle, or honu, is of great significance throughout all Polynesian cultures. In Hawaiian culture, the turtle symbolizes good luck, endurance and long life. For Maori people, turtles signify travel and navigation as well as fertility and longevity.
Fish provided the main source of food to Polynesian people. They find their significance both nutritiously and spiritually. They stand for the emblems of nature and symbolize wealth, plenty, prosperity and life. In Maori mythology, the culture hero maui caught a giant fish using a fishhook that would become the North Island of New Zealand.
In Polynesian waters, sharks strike fear into humans. However, it plays special role in mythology. In Maori culture, sharks are considered as guardian spirits. In Hawaiian mythology, aumakua, a family god often manifested as shark. So that’s why the appearance of the shark is considered as a sign of omen.
In the Hawaiian culture, the sun can be a symbol of happiness and good feelings. The symbol of sun is usually associated to masculine tattoo which symbolizes energy, bright spirit and greatness. The rise and fall of the sun also embodies the eternal nature of life.
The Tiki refers to carved human figures in Polynesian cultures, which could be associated with the myth of Tiki, the first man created by Tane. By wearing the sign of Tiki, people attain protection, strength and power.
Samoan Tattoo for men with spearheads and geometric patterns
Gorgeous tribal back tattoo for women in grey style
Black and grey sleeve tattoo
Polynesian side tattoo for women
Cool polynesian tattoo
Small Polynesian tattoo
Polynesian Maori with flower side tattoo
Should arm tattoo with Tiki and sun for men
Half chest arm tattoo with spear heads, sharks and Tiki
Half upper arm tattoo with spearheads and wave
Polynesian sleeve tattoo with Centipedes
Polynesian sleeve tattoo
Cool polynesian neck tattoo for men
Polynesian and flower tattoo for women
Beautiful polynesian leg tattoo for women
Polynesian back tattoo for women
Chest and sleeve Polynesian Tattoo with spearheads and braids
Polynesian neck tattoo for men
Half sleeve Polynesian tattoo for men
polynesian half sleeve tattoo
Tribal shoulder and half sleeve tattoo with cross, Japanese letters and Polynesian symbols
Polynesian chest tattoo
Polynesian tattoos behind the ear